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Узбекский / Английский

Модератор: Dragan

Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пн ноя 14, 2022 11:21

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Food



yemoq – to eat
yeb bo’lmaydigan OR yesa bo’lmaydigan – uneatable

ovqat – food
ovqatlanmoq, ovqat yemoq – to eat, to feed, to have a meal
Tom ovqat yedi, pivo ichdi va keyin uxlab qoldi. – Tom ate, drank beer and then went to sleep.

ichmoq – to drink
pishirmoq – to cook
qaynatmoq – to boil, to cook
ovqat qilmoq, ovqat tayorlamoq – to cook
tayorlamoq – o prepare

nonushta, nahorlik – breakfast
tushlik – lunch, dinner
kechki ovqat – supper ("evening meal")

choy – tea
non – bread
shirmon non, shirmon – rich bread
sho’rva – soup
xo’rda – rice soup

pazanda – cookery specialist
oshxona – dining room, kitchen
mehmon – guest
mezbon – host, master of the house

Dasturxonga marhamat! – Welcome to the table!
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пн ноя 14, 2022 12:47

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tuz – salt
shakar, qand – sugar
shirin – sweet, tasty
mazali – tasty, pleasant
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Ср ноя 16, 2022 13:40

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nonushta qilmoq, nahorlik qilmoq – to have breakfast
tushlik qilmoq – to have dinner

taom – dish, meal solution

idish – dish, vessel, container
idish-tovoq – tableware, crockery
qoshiq – spoon
vilka – fork

chuchvaraxona – dumpling bar
(chuchvara – dumplings, xona – room)
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Вт ноя 22, 2022 08:41

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demoq – to tell, to say, to pronounce


Usually this verb is used when transmitting direct speech or when retelling.

Examples:

— Menga piolani bering, — dedi.
"Give me a cup," he said.

Kecha sizda ot yo'q dedingiz.
You said yesterday that you don't have a horse.

Salom de. OR Salom deng. – Share a hello.
Nima deysiz? – What are you talking about?
Sizda yigirma tanga bor, deysizmi? – You say you have twenty coins?


Sometimes, in the imperative-subjunctive mood, the affix -gin is added to the verb base instead of -ing. The result is a sentence with a hint of a wish.

For example:

ha degin – say “yes”
ishlagin – work (“would you like to work?”)
yozgin – write (similarly)
o'qigin – learn (similarly)

The use of –gin as an alternative to the main imperative affix for 2nd-person is also found in other Turkic languages, for example, in Kumyk it will be "гъын".
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пт ноя 25, 2022 14:50

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Words to memorize:


olmoq – to take

… + olmoq (adverbial participle + verb) - to be able (to do something)


tushuna olmayman – I can’t understand
qaza olmayman – I can't dig

BUT:

qazishim mumkin – I can dig – that is, in the affirmative sentence, the word “mumkin” is more often used
(qazimoq, qazmoq - to dig, qazish - verbal noun "digging")



eplamoq - to cope, to manage to
Ular buni epladi. – They did it.

istamoq, xohlamoq, tilamoq – to want, to wish
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Чт дек 01, 2022 08:44

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Family

Qarindoshlik atamalari



oila – family
xonadon – family, household; house, dynasty
qarindosh – relative

erkak – man
ayol – woman, wife
xotin – wife, woman
rafiqa – wife
kuyov, turmush o’rtoq – husband
juvon – young married woman

bola – child
qiz – daughter, girl
o’g’il – son, boy
nevara, nabira – grandchild
chevara – great-grandchild

aka – older brother
uka, ini – younger brother
opa – older sister
singil – younger sister
aka-uka – brothers
opa-singil – sisters

ota, dada – father
ona, oyi, aya, opa – mother
bobo, buva – grandfather
momo, buvi – grandmother

qaynota – father in law
qaynona – mother in law
tog’a – maternal uncle
amaki – paternal uncle
xola – maternal aunt
amma – paternal aunt
jiyan – nephew, niece
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Ср дек 14, 2022 07:58

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How to exchange greetings


Words of greeting
Salomlashish


Assalomu alaykum! – Hello! («Peace be with you!»)
Va alaykum assalom! – Hello! («And the same to you!»)

Yaxshimisiz? – Are you okay?
Salomatmisiz? – How are you?
Ishlaringiz qanday? – How are you doing?
Kayfiyatlaringiz yaxshimi? – How are you doing? («Are you in a good mood?»)
Qalaysan? – How are you? (Qalay = Qanday)

Xayrli tong! – Good morning!
Xayrli kun! – Good day!
Xayrli kech! – Good evening!
Xayrli tun! – Good night!


Responses to greetings

Hammasi joyida! – I'm alright!
Xudoga shukur! – Thank God!


Words of farewell
Xayrlashish


Xayr! – Bye!
Sog’ bo’ling! – Be healthy!
Sog’bo’l! – Be healthy!
Ko’rishguncha! – See you there!
Uchrashguncha! – Goodbye!
Yaxshi qoling! – Best wishes staying!
Xudo yor bo’lsin! – May God be with you!
Oq yo’l! – Have a safe trip!
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Ср дек 14, 2022 07:59

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Related words


salomat, sog’ – healthy
salomatlik, sog’lik – health
kayfiyat – mood, spirits, well-being

joy – place, location
joyida – in place, in order
joylashmoq – to settle, to find a place, to become situated
turar joy – housing, place of residence

hamma, barcha – all, every
hamma narsa – all things, all items
narsa – thing, item

Xudo – God

uchrashmoq – to meet
uchrashuv – meeting
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Ср янв 25, 2023 08:16

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Types of participles in Uzbek


Participles in the Uzbek language are of the following types:


1. Past participle formed with the affix -gan (phonetic variants – -kan, -qan):

o'qigan (read): Bu kitobni o'qigan odam. – This is the man who read the book.
yozgan (wrote): Bu kitobni yozigan odam. – This is the man who wrote the book.
tug'ilgan kuni – Birthday,
o'tgan yili – last year.

Using this form, an Indefinite Past tense is formed, which corresponds to the English Past Perfect.


2. Present-future participle. It is formed from adverbial participles with the affix -а (-у) using the affix -digan:

ishlaydigan (working or the one that will work), yozadigan (writing or the one that will write).


3. Focal present participle. It is formed from adverbial participles with the affix -а (-у) using the affix -yotgan (after -a) or -otgan (after -y):

kelayotgan (coming), ishlayotgan (working).


4. Progressive past participle. It is formed with the affixes -uvchi, -ovchi:

2019 yil 1 yanvardan barcha ishlovchi pensionerlarga pensiyani to'liq miqdorda to'lash tartibi joriy etildi. – From January 1, 2019, the procedure for paying pensions in full to all working pensioners was introduced.


5. A very rarely used type of the future participle with the affixes -ar (-r) (affirmative form) and -mas (negative form):
kelar / kelmas – the one who will come / the one who will not come.

More often this type of participle is used to form a Future Presumptive tense:
Меn ertaga kutubxonaga borarman. – I'll possibly go to the library tomorrow.


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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Ср янв 25, 2023 08:20

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Indefinite Past tense



Past Perfect tense corresponds to the English tenses Present Perfect or Past Simple.

To form this tense, you need to attach the affix -gan and the personal ending of group I. By the personal endings of group I, we mean those that are used in the Present-Future tense, and not in the Definite Past.



Examples:

Universitetni qachon tugatgansiz? - When did you graduate from university?
U bu kitobni o'qimagan. OR U bu kitobni o'qigan emas. - He has not read this book.
Men 1980 yilda tug'ilganman. - I was born in 1980.
Siz Kaspiy dengizi sohilida bo'lganmisiz? - Have you ever been to the shores of the Caspian Sea?


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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Ср янв 25, 2023 08:23

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Postpositions-names



old – front
orqa – back
yon – side, flank
o'rta – middle
tomon – side, direction, area
ust – top
past – bottom




These words have partially lost the meaning of objectivity and moved into the category of postpositions. Unlike proper postpositions, postpositions-names take possessive and case affixes:


deraza yonida – near the window
daryo oldida – by the river
uy orqasida – behind the house
u tomonga – in that direction
do'kon yonidan o'ddik – we passed by the store

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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Чт мар 02, 2023 08:34

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Let's take a look at the first strophe of this poem.


O'sha men edim

Derazang yoniga qoʼndi kabutar
Ilkida oʼrogʼliq maktub bor edi.
Senga boqib turgan maʼyus koʼzlari,
Shu onda nedandir umidvor edi.
Sen esa pardani yopib qoʼyding jim,
Oʼsha men edim-ku, oʼsha men edim.


The word-based translation I got is as follows:

A pigeon has landed on your window
He had a message.
Sad eyes were looking at you,
At that time, he was hoping for something.
And you quietly closed the curtain.
That was me, that was me.


Comments:

qo’nmoq – to get down (on something)

oʼrogʼliq maktub – a folded message, a scroll

ilkida – in the hands (poetic) (also the homonym ilk – first, initial)

boqmoq – to look at, …ga boqmoq – keep an eye on, to observe

shu onda – at that moment (on = moment)

nedandir – for something

esa - as for, however, whereas

yopib qoʼymoq – to cover, to close (qoʼymoq – to put, to place; to stop)

jim – quiet, still

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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Чт мар 02, 2023 08:38

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Let's take a look at the second strophe of this poem.


Koʼchaga chiqding sen bogʼ aylangani,
Daydi shamollarday xayoling tarqoq.
Bogʼ kezib yurarding shunda nogahon
Oyogʼing ostiga tushdi bir yaproq.
Oʼsha yaproq kabi sochilgandi kim?
Oʼsha men edim-ku, oʼsha men edim.


The word-based translation I got is as follows:

You went out for a walk in the garden,
Your mind is scattered like the wind.
You were walking in the garden, and suddenly
A leaf fell at your feet.
Who threw this leaf?
That was me, that was me.


Comments:

aylanmoq – to spin, to turn; to go or walk around, to take a walk

daydi – wandering

shamol+lar+da+y – like the wind

xayol – thought(s), imagination, idea, fancy

tarqoq – spread out, scattered

kezmoq – to walk about, to stroll; kezib yurmoq – inspect

shunda – at the same time (an indication of an action, an event)

nogahon – sudden (= nogohon = nogoh, see below)

oyoq – leg, foot (oyogʼing – your leg, your foot)

ost – bottom side, bottom; ostiga – down, under

tushmoq – to fall, to descend

yaproq – leaf

kabi – such as, like

sochilmoq – to scatter, sochilgan – scattered

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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Чт мар 02, 2023 08:43

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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Чт мар 02, 2023 08:51

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ekan


The use of ekan - to be seemingly, apparently. When the information most often presented as new, just discovered fact sometimes unexpected for the speaker himself. The temporal distinction between a past and a present state of affairs is not marked grammatically. The tense must be decided from the context.

This word can be considered as a participle formed from the verb emoq, e+kan (here “kan” = “gan”);
thus, the verb “emoq” is used in practice in two forms: in Definite Past (edi, edim, edik, eding, …) and in the form “ekan”.

shunday ekan – so, in that case

bor ekan –there is, «as long as there is …»
Mehr yurakda bor ekan, ... = As long as there is love in the heart, ...


Examples:

Bo'yoq juda yorqin ekan – The paint is really bright

men hayotda bor ekanman – as long as I am alive

Bolangizni boshida otasi bor ekan, siz bor ekansiz – As long as your child has a father, you exist

Undan mening xabari bor ekan – I have a message from him

Bizda bunday planlar yo'q ekan – We have no such plans

Menda juda ko'p yaxshi ko'ylaklar bor edi – I had a lot of good shirts

Mening shaxsiy uyim bor edi – I had my own house

Mening shaxsiy uyim yo'q edi – I didn't have my own house

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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Чт мар 02, 2023 08:53

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Let's take a look at the third strophe of this poem.


Bogʼda gullar terding avaylab asta
Nogoh qoʼllaringga sanchildi tikan.
Nozik qoʼling bilan sugʼurding uni
Deding “Shunday gulda tikan bor ekan”.
Senga talpingandi shu tikan, gulim,
Oʼsha men edim-ku, oʼsha men edim.


The word-based translation I got is as follows:

You were carefully picking flowers in the garden,
Suddenly a thorn pricked your hands.
You took it out with a gentle hand
And said: "There was a thorn in such a flower."
This thorn that reached you, oh my flower,
That was me, that was me.


Comments:

termoq – to gather, to pick up

avaylab – taking great care, carefully

asta – slowly, quietly; carefully

nogoh = no+goh – sudden;
goh – sometimes, at times; yomg'ir goh yog'adi, goh tinadi – sometimes it rains, sometimes it stops;
goh-goh — from time to time.

sanchilmoq – to stick in

tikan – thorn

nozik – delicate; sensitive; graceful (noz – tenderness)

sugʼurmoq – to pull or draw out; to wrest

talpinmoq – to reach

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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Чт мар 02, 2023 08:55

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Let's take a look at the last strophe of this poem.


Soʼng qaytding uyingga oʼy surib sokin,
Deraza yoniga qoʼyding gullarni.
Tin olmoq dardida choʼkding toʼshakka
Va yigʼlab oʼqiding “Oʼtkan kunlar”ni.
Kimnidir oʼylading, koʼzlari sim-sim,
Oʼsha men edim-ku, oʼsha men edim.


The word-based translation I got is as follows:

Then you went back to your house in a calm reverie,
You put flowers by the window.
With the thought of rest, you lay down in bed
And you read "Bygone Days" with tears.
You were thinking about someone, your eyes were twinkling,
That was me, that was me.


Comments:

o'ylamoq – to think, o'y – thought

surmoq – to push, to move; oʼy surib — thinking about something

sokin – quiet, peaceful, still

qoʼymoq – to put, to place

tin olmoq – to relax, to take a breath; tin – breath; tinim — peace, rest

dard – malady, ailment; concern, worry

cho'kmoq – to get down, to sit down, to lie down

toʼshak — mattress, bed

yigʼlamoq – to cry, to weep

«Oʼtkan kunlar» - «Bygone Days» - novel by Abdulla Qodiriy

sim-sim – throbbing, twinkling

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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пт мар 10, 2023 09:41

markata писал(а):*

Types of participles in Uzbek


Participles in the Uzbek language are of the following types:


1. Past participle formed with the affix -gan (phonetic variants – -kan, -qan):

o'qigan (read): Bu kitobni o'qigan odam. – This is the man who read the book.
yozgan (wrote): Bu kitobni yozigan odam. – This is the man who wrote the book.
tug'ilgan kuni – Birthday,
o'tgan yili – last year.

Using this form, an Indefinite Past tense is formed, which corresponds to the English Past Perfect.


.................................


*



Mistake. It will be right so: corresponds to the English Present Perfect

*
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Ср апр 05, 2023 09:57

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Words to memorize:


o’lka – country; province
yurt – homeland, people
mamlakat – country, state
davlat – state
Vatan – fatherland
yurtboshi – head of state
poytaxt – capital (city)
markaz – center
mavze – district
mahalla – district, neighbourhood
tuman – administrative district; fog
manzil – address
ahоli – population, inhabitants
hokim – mayor, governor
ko'prik – bridge
bozor – market
bekat – station
bino – building
qavat – floor; layer
deraza – window
darvoza – gate
qo'shni – neighbour
tashqari – outside, exterior
sayr – walk, stroll
qadam – step
birlashgan – united
millatlar – nation
tashkilot – organization
Birlashgan Millatlar Tashkiloti – United Nations Organization

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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Ср апр 05, 2023 10:03

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Confusion with affixes


When studying the Uzbek language, it is often confusing that some affixes that have completely different uses are written and pronounced the same way.
Let's analyze three such cases.


1. Affix –di.

It is used in two cases: in the 3rd person of the present-future and in all three persons of the obvious past.
It must be remembered that in the present-future it is used only in the 3rd person, where it is preceded by the affix -a or –y.

Examples:

U ikki soatdan keyin uyg'onadi – He will wake up in two hours (Present-Future)
U osmonga qaraydi – He looks at the sky (Present-Future)
Men buni xohlamadim – I Didn't Want That (Definite Past)
Siz uxladingiz – You were sleeping (Definite Past)
U hamma narsani ko'rdi – He saw everything (Definite Past)
In the Present Continuous –di turns into –ti:
Hozir yomg'ir yog'yapti – It's raining now.

2. Most of the confusion arises with the affixes -(i)ng, -(i)ngiz, -ning.

There may be 4 reasons for their use.
The first is the imperative-subjunctive mood, the 2nd person, the polite form (-(i)ng) or the plural (-(i)ngiz).
The second is the possessive affix, the 2nd person, –(i)ng and -(i)ngiz.
The third is the personal ending (group II), the 2nd person, -di+ng or –di+ngiz.
The fourth is the affix of possessive case -ning.

Examples:

Uyga qayting – Come back home (imperative, polite form)
Uyga qaytingiz – Come back home (imperative, plural or very polite form)
Siz qachon keldingiz? – When did you come? (past tense, that is –di + affix of group II)
sening ko'zing – your eye (affix of possessive case and possessive affix)
sizning chelakingiz – your bucket (affix of possessive case and possessive affix)
bolangiz – your child (possessive affix)
uning bolasi – his child (affix of possessive case)

3. Affix -siz.

It can be either the personal ending (group I) of the 2nd person plural, or the affix of negation.

Examples:

Siz hozir va kelajak haqida o'ylayapsiz – You are thinking about the present and the future
U bolasiz – He is childless.

4. Affix -miz.

This is either an affix of belonging, or a personal ending (group I) of the 1st person of the plural.

Examples:

Ertaga biz daryoga boramiz – Tomorrow we will go to the river
Bolamiz bilan kim o'ynayapti? – Who is playing with our child?

Путаница с аффиксами Eng.jpg


We will use the terms: "the personal ending of group I" is like, for example, in the Present-Future tense; "personal ending of group II" - as in the Definite Past tense.

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