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Узбекский / Английский

Модератор: Dragan

Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пт сен 02, 2022 14:16

markata писал(а):Yer - land, place.
Qay – Which? What kind of...? (rarely used)


Qaysi – Which? What kind of...? (frequently used)
Qaysi = Qay + si, “si” is possessive affix, 3rd person.


Qayer = qay + yer
Qayer? – What kind of place is it?
Bu qayer? Bu dalamiz. – What kind of place is it? This is our field. (dala – field)


Let's recall such interrogative pronouns:

Qayerda? - Where?
Qayerga? - In which direction?
Qayerdan? - Where from?

Bu ko'cha qayerda? – Where is this street?
Qayerga qarayapsiz? – Where are you looking?
U qayerdan kelgan? – Where did he (she) come from?


Bu yerga keling! – Come here!

bu yerda – here
u yerda – there




Example:


- Men O‘zbekistondan keldim.
- O'zbekistoning qayeridansiz? qa+yer+i+dan
- Toshkentda yashayman.

- I came from Uzbekistan.
- Where in Uzbekistan are you from?
- I live in Tashkent.
markata

 
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Чт сен 08, 2022 07:56

***

Definite Past Tense. Aniq o'tgan zamon fe'li


The definite past expresses an event or action completed in the past, and the speaker was an eyewitness to this action or its participant.
The definite past tense is formed by adding to the verb stem the affix -di, plus the possessive type of personal endings.

Personal endings for Definite Past:

1st person, singular: “m”; plural: “k”
2nd person, singular: “ng”; plural: “ngiz”
3rd person, singular: no ending; plural: “(lar)”



Men kirdim – I entered
Biz kirdik – We entered
Sen kirding – You entered
Siz kirdingiz – You entered
U kirdi – He (she) entered
Ular kirdi OR Ular kirdilar – They entered


Examples:

Kecha biz qishloqqa qaytdik. – Yesterday we returned to the village.
Bugun maktabda darslar bo'ldi. – There were classes at school today.

- Seshanba siz nima qildingiz? – What did you do on Tuesday?.
- Ishladim. – I worked.

- Bugun ertalab nima qildingiz? – What did you do this morning?
- Kitob o’qidim. – I read a book.

- Turdingmi? – Did you get up? Tur+di+ng+mi
- Yo'q, men o'tiraman. – No, I'm sitting.


The negative form of the definite past tense is formed by adding the negative affix -ma to the verb base, followed by the affix -di and then personal ending:

Ular hаli shahardan qaytmadilar. – They have not yet returned from the city. qayt+ma+di+lar
markata

 
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Чт сен 08, 2022 18:15

***

bo’lmoq – to be; to take place, happen; to be finished; to be suitable; to exist, be present; to be found; to become



Bugun yigirma daraja sovuq bo'ladi. – It will be twenty degrees cold today.
Siz kelajakda kim bo’lasiz? – Who will you be in the future?
Shifokor bo’laman. – I will be a doctor.
Sog’ bo’ling! – Be healthy!
Yo’l bo’lsin! – Have a safe trip!
Nima bo'ldi? – What’s happened?

The use of bo'lmoq in the past tense indicates that a change of state has occurred, which may or may not be still relevant at present time:

Bugun kichli shamol bo'ldi. – It was a little windy today.

Soat necha bo’ldi? – What time is it?
Soat to‘rt bo‘ldi. – It's four o'clock.
markata

 
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пт сен 09, 2022 18:17

***

emoq – to be.
This verb form is obsolete; usually this verb is used in the past tense (edi).

bor – there is/are, existing, present.
This modal verb has no infinitive.

Examples:

Kecha sovuq edi. – It was cold yesterday.
Qayerda edi? – Where was it?
O’tgan kuni ham ish ko’p edi. – There was a lot of work the other day.
O'tgan yili shaxarda edik. – We were in town last year.

It is important:

Menda eshak bor. – I have a donkey.
Menda eshak yoq. – I haven’t a donkey.
Menda eshak bor edi. – I had a donkey.
Menda eshak yo'q edi. – I hadn't a donkey.

Another way:

Mening akam bor. – I have a brother.
Singlim yo'q. – I don't have a sister.
markata

 
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пн сен 26, 2022 16:20

***

Words to memorize:


dunyo – world, universe
olam – world, universe, cosmos

sharq – east
g'arb – west
shimol – north
janub – south

bahor – spring
yoz – summer
kuz – autumn
qish – winter

quyosh – sun
osmon – sky

iqlim – climate
yomg’ir – rain
qor – snow
shamol – wind
bulut – cloud
do’l – hail
ayoz – frost

tog’ – mountain
g’or – cave

dengiz – sea
ko’l – lake
daryo – river
markata

 
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Ср сен 28, 2022 12:23

***

Verbs to memorize:


o'rgan – to study
yodlamoq – to memorize; to recall
unutmoq – to forget
o'ylamoq – to think (of, about), to consider

bitirmoq – to finish, to end; to complete; to liquidate, to destroy
tugatmoq – synonym for " bitirmoq"

o'ynamoq – to play; to dance; to play with
kuylamoq – to sing

ichmoq – to drink
ovqatlanmoq – to eat

ushlamoq – to hold
tashlamoq – to throw

qurmoq – to build
ekmoq – to sow, to plant

tug’ilmoq – to be born
uyg’onmoq – to wake up

ko’rsatmoq – to show
aylanmoq – to spin, to turn; to take a walk

shug’ullanmoq – to be busy with something
markata

 
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Ср окт 05, 2022 11:14

Fixed bugs:

markata писал(а):Examples:

...

Bizning auditoriya katta. – Our auditorium is huge.

Sening ko’zlaring juda chiroyli. – Your eyes are very beautiful.

...

Sinf jurnali qayerda? – Where's the class register?

...
markata

 
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Вт окт 18, 2022 17:41

***

The nominative case is distinguished by the absence of a case affix:

Qush shimolga uchmoqda. – The bird is flying north.

We have considered the formation of genitive (possessive) and accusative cases above.

Now let's study the locative, ablative and dative cases.
markata

 
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Вт окт 18, 2022 17:45

***

Locative indicates the object or person where the action took place. Often by action is meant possession, "I (you, he, ...) have (has) ...". It can also indicate the time of the action; indicate the location of a person or object.

Nouns and other parts of speech in this case answer questions:

Kimda? (On whom? Who has it?)
Nimada? (On what? What has it?)
Qayerda? (Where?)
Qachon? (When?)


The locative is formed using the affix "da".


Examples:

Tog'larda sovuq shamollar esadi.
(Cold winds blow in the mountains.)

Menda Ikki o‘g‘lim bor.
(I have two sons.)

Chelakda suv bor.
(There is water in the bucket.)

Hafta oxirida biz teatrga boramiz.
(At the end of the week we go to the theater.)

Otam Toshkentda yashaydi.
(My father lives in Tashkent.)
markata

 
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пт окт 21, 2022 17:24

***

Words in the Ablative case are formed using the affix -dan and indicate:

1. the beginning of the action:

Ish seshanbadan boshlanadi. – The work starts on Tuesday.

2. place of origin:

Kecha akam qishloqdan keldi. – My brother came from the village yesterday.

3. the material from which the object is made:

Bu uy toshdan qurilgan. – This house is built of stone.

4. the object with which we compare something:

U mendan o'n yosh katta. – He is ten years older than me.


The words in the Ablative case answer the questions:

Kimdan? (From whom?)

Nimadan? (From what?)

Qayerdan? (From where?)

Qachondan? (Since when?)
markata

 
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пт окт 21, 2022 17:29

***

Words in the Dative case indicate the object or person to whom the action is directed, as well as the place or time of the end of the action.

Words in the Dative case are formed using the affix -ga. If a word ends in k or g, the affix -ka is applied; if it ends in q or g’, -qa is applied.


The words in the original case answer the questions:

Kimga? (For whom?)

Nimaga? (For what?)

Qayerga? (Where? In what direction?)



Examples:

Men daftarni o‘sha yigitga berdim. – I gave the notebook to that guy.

Darslarga vaqtida tayyorlanamiz. – We will get ready for the lessons on time.

U ertaga daryoga keladi. – He will come to the river tomorrow.
markata

 
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Ср окт 26, 2022 15:16

***

Case forms of the personal pronouns


Склонение личных местоимений 1 Eng.jpg


Склонение личных местоимений 2 Eng.jpg
markata

 
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Ср окт 26, 2022 15:48

***

One letter n is written when the pronouns men and sen are in the genitive and accusative cases; the letter n is added to the pronoun u in the dative, locative and ablative cases before the affixes, for example:

Unga oq qog'oz bering. – Give him a white paper.
Unda non bor. – He has bread.
Undan hamma narsani oling. – Get everything from him.
markata

 
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пт окт 28, 2022 14:40

***

Words to memorize:


maktab - school

o'qituvchi - teacher

o'quvchi - student, pupil

talaba - student


kasb - profession

hunar - profession, craft


ishchi - worker

ish - work

ishlamoq - to work


sotuvchi - salesman

haydovchi - driver

quruvchi - builder

shifokor - doctor

muhandis - engineer

harbiy - soldier

dehqon - farmer

cho'pon - shepherd

rassom - artist

siyosatchi - politician


tilshunos - linguist

til - tongue, language

Ingliz tili - English language



ustoz - master, mentor

hamkasb - colleague



Examples:


Uning atasi - shifokor. - His father is a doctor.

Mening yangi kasbim – quruvchi. - My new profession is a builder.

Universitetni bitirib, tilshunos bo‘laman. - I will graduate from university and
become a linguist.

Muhandislar shanba kuni ishlamaydi. - Engineers do not work on Saturdays.

Mening hamkasbim sizning tilingizda gapirmaydi. - My colleague does not speak your
language.

Hozir talabalar kitob o‘qimoqda. - Now students are reading books.
markata

 
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Вт ноя 01, 2022 10:45

markata писал(а):
.......

Aziz oʻchoq yoniga oʻtiradi. – Aziz sits by the fire.

yonida!!!

.......

markata

 
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Сб ноя 05, 2022 22:09

***

Postpositions

Ko'makchilar




There are no prepositions in the Uzbek language, their role is played by postpositions.
At the same time, there are few "proper postpositions", often their functions are performed by other parts of speech, as well as case forms.

Example:

bir uydan ikkinchisiga — от дома к дому — from one house to another


However, some postpositions are very popular:

bilan – (together) with, and; by, from
uchun – for; in order to; because
kabi – such as, like
orqali – through, via, from
qadar – like, as; as much as, as many as; nearly, about; up to, until
uzra — on, over, all over, throughout



Examples:

Men siz bilan ishlayman. — I will work with you.
Men u bilan faxrlanaman. — I am proud of him.

Men bolalar uchun kitob yozyapman. — I am writing a book for children.

U kattalar kabi harakat qiladi. – He acts like an adult.

Men eshik orqali kirilgan. – I entered through the door.

Qishga qadar bu sabzavotni saqlab bo'lmaydi. – This vegetable cannot be stored until winter.

Shahar uzra yog'ilardi qor. – It was snowing over the city.
markata

 
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пн ноя 07, 2022 16:58

***

Words to memorize:


chelak - bucket
savat - basket
idish - dish
piyola - bowl
qoshiq - spoon
choynak - teapot
dasturxon - tablecloth (spread over a table or upon the floor); "table" (of food)
quti - box
o'roq - sickle
hamyon - purse
tanga - coin
koptok - ball
chang'i - ski
stol - table
stul - chair
javon - cupboard; wardrobe; shelf.
karavot - bed
arqon - rope
qop - sack

kiyim – clothes ,clothing
ko'ylak - shirt
yopinchiq - coverlet, cape, poncho
shim - trousers
telpak - fur hat
etik - high boot

qidirmoq – to look for, to search for
topmoq – to find


Examples:


Qaysi ko'ylakni oldingiz, oq yoki ko'k? - Which shirt did you get, white or blue?
Sizga qora shim yoqadimi? - Do you like black pants? - Вам нравятся черные брюки? (yoqmoq - to please, to be agreeable to)

Ana shu koptok men uchun! - This ball is for me!
O'z qo'llaringiz bilan javon yasang. - Make a shelf with your own hands.

Dasturxonimizda choynak bor. - There is a teapot on our table.
Olmalarni qutiga soldi. - He put the apples in the box.
Uyimizda uchta karavot yo'q edi. - We didn't have three beds in our house.

Men quyonimni qidiryapman. – I'm looking for my rabbit.
Quyonimni topdim. – I found my rabbit.
markata

 
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Чт ноя 10, 2022 11:42

markata писал(а):Ranglar – Colors

...................................

Qanday qizil rang sizni his qilishadi? – How does red make you feel?

...................................

This is nonsense. Correct phrase:

Qizil rang sizda qanday hislarni uyg'otadi? – How does red make you feel?

markata

 
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пт ноя 11, 2022 10:41

***

Affix -niki


It is used to reflect connection with or belonging to.
The affix –niki is attached to the end of the word or personal pronoun.


bu mening qalamim – this is my pencil
bu qalam meniki – this pencil is mine
OR: bu meniki – this is mine

eshikning ruchkasi – door handle
ruchka eshikniki – handle of the door
OR: bu eshikniki – it's of the door

Personal pronouns with the -niki affix answer the question "Kimniki?" (“Whose?”).

meniki – mine
bizniki – ours
seniki – yours
sizniki – yours
uniki – his/hers/its
ularniki – theirs



Examples:


Bu qalam kimniki? – Bu qalam meniki.
Whose pencil is this? - This pencil is mine.

Xona kimniki? – Anvarniki.
Whose room is it? - Anwar's.

- Olma siznikimi?
- Ha, meniki.
- Yo’q, meniki emas.
- Is the apple yours?
- Yes, mine.
- No, not mine.

- Sening ismim kim?
- Ismim Nosir.
- Meniki, Asad.
- What is your name?
- My name is Nasir.
- Mine, Asad.

- Ular kimniki?
- Ular otaniki, meniki emas.
- Whose are they?
- They are father's, not mine.

- Sizning ismingiz nima?
- Karim, sizniki-chi?
- Meniki ham.
- What is your name?
- Karim, what about you?
- Mine too.

meniki emassan - you are not mine

Bu yilgi mevalar bizniki bo’ladi. – This year's fruits will be ours.

Mevalarning hammasi uniki bo’ladi! – All the fruits will be his!
markata

 
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пт ноя 11, 2022 14:58

***

meni, seni, …



When we encounter a personal pronoun with “-ni” at the end, we realize that it is most likely a pronoun in the accusative case.

But there is a possibility that this is a simplified form of the possessive case, that is, instead of “mening” it is said (or even written) “meni”.


Examples:


bu meni ishim emas = bu mening ishim emas – this is not my job

meni sevimli ayolim = mening sevimli ayolim – my beloved woman

BUT:

men seni sevaman – я тебя люблю – I love you (accusative)
markata

 
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