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Узбекский / Английский

Модератор: Dragan

Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Чт июн 23, 2022 17:22

Ordinal numerals examples:


Uchinchi eshikdan kir! - Enter the third door!

Bu qirq oltinchi uy - This is the forty sixth house

Ertaga o'n birinchi dars bo'ladi – Tomorrow will be the eleventh lesson

Birinchi yil o'tdi – The first year has passed
markata

 
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Чт июн 23, 2022 17:27

The use of cardinal numerals in sentences often looks like Number + ta + Noun:

Bu ko'chada sakkizta uy bor - There are eight houses on this street
Yigirma ettita olma bor - There are twenty seven apples


Another way is to use numerative words.

Here are the most used numerative words:

dona – piece, item
nusxa – example of a book or a document
bosh – animal unit
tup – plant unit
nafar – person
juft – couple
yosh - used to indicate age (yosh – young)

Examples:

yetti dona baliq – seven fishes
to’rt tup daraxt – four trees
o’n nafar o’quvchi – ten students

In many cases, neither the "-ta" affix nor the numerative word is used. For example, when we talk about time:

Ikki soat kutdik - We waited two hours
Bu yerda ikki yil yashadik - We lived here for two years
Bizga uch hafta kerak - We need three weeks

Nouns after numerals are not formed by the affix –lar:

ko’k qalamlar – blue pencils (no numerals)
beshta qalam – five pencils
besh dona qalam – five pieces of pencils
o’n tup daraxt – ten trees
markata

 
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Чт июн 23, 2022 17:28

Yer - land, place.
Qay – Which? What kind of...? (rarely used)


Qaysi – Which? What kind of...? (frequently used)
Qaysi = Qay + si, “si” is possessive affix, 3rd person.


Qayer = qay + yer
Qayer? – What kind of place is it?
Bu qayer? Bu dalamiz. – What kind of place is it? This is our field. (dala – field)


Let's recall such interrogative pronouns:

Qayerda? - Where?
Qayerga? - In which direction?
Qayerdan? - Where from?

Bu ko'cha qayerda? – Where is this street?
Qayerga qarayapsiz? – Where are you looking?
U qayerdan kelgan? – Where did he (she) come from?


Bu yerga keling! – Come here!

bu yerda – here
u yerda – there
markata

 
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Чт июн 23, 2022 17:29

Words to memorize:

bola - child
aka - older brother
uka - younger brother
aka-uka - brothers
ota - father
ona - mother
ota-ona - parents
singil - younger sister
opa - older sister; mother
opa-singil - sisters
o'g'il - son
qiz - girl, daughter
kishi, odam - human
qariya - old man


Examples:

Bolalarim bor - I have children

Akam sayrga chiqdi - My brother went for a walk

Bu odam mening o'g'lim - This man is my son

Singilingiz yashil ko'zlari bor - Your sister has green eyes

Qizimiz o'tgan yili tug'ilgan - Our daughter was born last year
markata

 
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Чт июн 23, 2022 17:30

In Uzbek, often the same word can act as both an adjective and an adverb.

Adjectives do not change in number.
markata

 
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Чт июн 23, 2022 17:30

Words to memorize (adjectives/adverbs):


katta - big; older / kichik - small; younger

yaxshi - good; well / yomon - bad

oq - white / qora - black

baland - tall / past - lower

uzun - long / qisqa, kalta - short

yosh - young / qari - old (man); eski (thing)

achchiq - bitter / shirin - sweet

issiq - hot / sovuq - cold

og’ir - heavy / yengil - easy

tez - fast, rapid, quick, quickly / sekin - slow, slowly

ko'p - many, much / kam, oz - few, small
markata

 
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Чт июн 23, 2022 17:31

Examlpes:


katta yo'l - big road

yaxshi odamlar - good people

yaxshi ishlamoq - to work well

Yaxshi qoling! - Stay well!

past tog' - low mountain

Oq yo'l! - Have a good trip!

oq bo'r - white chalk

sovuq suv - cold water

og’ir chelak - heavy bucket

tez o'sish - rapid growth

sekin harakat - slow motion

ko'p daraxtlar - many trees

yosh ayol - young woman

kichik qiz - little girl

yomon kishi - bad guy

qora qor - black snow

baland bog' - high garden

uzun arqon - long rope

qisqa ko'cha - short street

qari kishi - old man

shirin konfet - sweet candy

issiq ko'l - hot lake

yengil ish - light work

kam miqdor - small amount

bir oz sut - a little of milk

eski uy - old house

achchiq tutun - bitter smoke
markata

 
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Чт июн 23, 2022 17:33

Imperative-subjunctive verbs

(buyruq-istak mayli)


In Uzbek, the imperative and the subjunctive moods of a verb are considered to be one mood. We translate 1st person verbs as a wish, 2nd person verbs as an order/wish, 3rd person verbs as a wish for that person.



olmoq - to take (the affix "-moq" gives an indefinite verb form)

Olmani ol! - Take the apple!

Olma - apple. The "-ni" suffix is used in the accusative case, but not always:

Olma ol! - Take an apple!


Imperative-subjunctive affixes:


After the final vowel:

1st person, singular: “-y”; plural: “-y-lik”
2nd person, singular: no affix, or in polite form - "-ng"; plural: “-ngiz”
3rd person, singular: “-sin”; plural: “sin” or “-sin-lar”

After the final consonant:

1st person, singular: “-ay”; plural: “-ay-lik”
2nd person, singular: no affix, or in polite form - "-ing"; plural: “-ingiz”
3rd person, singular: “-sin”; plural: “sin” or “-sin-lar”
markata

 
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Чт июн 23, 2022 17:33

Words to memorize:


och - open

yop - close

o'tir - sit down, sit

tur - stand up, stand

yot - lie down, lie

ol - take

ber - give

ishla - work
markata

 
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Чт июн 23, 2022 17:34

Examples for Imperative-subjunctive:


Men ishlay. - I would work.

Biz ishlaylik. - We would work.

Sen ishla! - Work! / Siz ishlang! - Work please!

Siz ishlangiz! - Work (please)! (plural)

U ishlasin. - It would be nice for him (her) to work.

Ular ishlasin. (or "Ular ishlasinlar") - It would be nice for them to work.


Men o'tiray. - I would sit.

Biz o'tiraylik. - We would sit.

Sen o'tir! - Sit! / Siz o'tiring! - Sit down please!

Siz o'tiringiz! - Sit down (please)! (plural)

U o'tirsin. - It would be nice for him (her) to sit down.

Ular o'tirsin. (or "Ular o'tirsinlar") - It would be nice for them to sit down.
markata

 
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пт июн 24, 2022 15:22

Words to memorize:


ha - yes

yo'q - no



bugun - today

hozir - now


kerak - "it is necessary"

mumkin - "it is permissible"


Examples:


Bugun haftaning nechanchi kuni? - What day of the week is it today?

Bugun seshanba. - Today is Tuesday.

Eshikni qachon yopasiz? - When do you close the door?

Hozir yopaman. - I'm closing now.

Issiq suvmi? - Is it hot water?

Ha, bu issiq suv. - Yes, it's hot water.

Yo'q, bu sovuq suv. - No, it's cold water.

Bu nima uchun kerak? - Why is this necessary?

Bu kerak emas. - It is not necessary.

emas = not
markata

 
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пт июн 24, 2022 15:23

Words to memorize:


qog‘oz - paper

kitob - book

matn - text

harf - letter

daftar - copybook

uy - home

ko'cha - street

yo'l - road

shahar - town

qishloq - village
markata

 
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пт июн 24, 2022 15:23

Examples:


Bu yaxshi kitobmi? - Is this a good book?

Ha, yaxshi. - Yes, good.

Aka, daftarni bering! - Brother, give me the copybook!

Yo'q, bu mening daftarim! - No, this is my copybook!
markata

 
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пт июн 24, 2022 15:24

Compound words to memorize:


shu - this
shu-shu - ever since

o'sha - same
o'sha-o'sha - ever since

tez - quick
tez-tez - frequent

dona - piece, item
dona-dona - grainly, powdery
dona-dona qilib ...moq - (do something) clearly:
dona-dona qilib gapirmoq - speak clearly,
dona-dona qilib yozmoq - write clearly

juda - very, too much
juda-juda - absolutely

kalta - short
kalta-kalta - (do something) often and intermittent
kalta-kalta qadam bosmoq - to take small steps

rasta - shopping row
rasta-rasta - (stand, move) in rows, in a string

gala - horde, pack
gala-gala - like a horde, in a pack

taka - goat
taka-taka qilmoq - to seek through

xona - room
xona-xona - consisting of separate rooms, honeycomb, checkered

shoda - bundle, necklace
shoda-shoda - bundles; many, a lot of

shona - flower-bud
shona-shona - studded with buds

qayta - again
(qaytmoq - to return)
qayta-qayta - repeatedly, over and over again

g'udda - knob, pimple
g'udda-g'udda - knobby

halqa - circle, ring, (chain) link
halqa-halqa - in rings, in plumes of smoke:
tutun halqa-halqa bo'lib chiqmoqda - smoke billows in rings

boshqa - another
...-dan boshqa - except ...:
sendan boshqa - except you
boshqa-boshqa - separately, different

bo'lak - part, piece
bo'lak-bo'lak - in pieces, in parts

ayrim - special, separate
ayrim-ayrim - separately

alohida - separate, special, detached
alohida-alohida - separately
markata

 
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пт июн 24, 2022 15:24

Demonstrative pronouns


Birlik (singular):


u = that, he, she

bu = this

shu = this here

o'sha = the one, the very


bunday = like this, like that

shunday = so, such

o'shanday = the same, as well



Ko'plik (plural):


ular = those, they

bular = these

shular = these here

o'shalar = those same
markata

 
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пт июн 24, 2022 15:25

Examples:


Ana u kim? - Who is he?
U – sotuvchi. - He is a salesman.

Mana bu nima? - What is this?
Bu – olma. - It's an apple.

U erda nima? - What is there?
U - daraxt. - That is a tree.

Ana shu ko’ylak. - That's the coat.

Shu ko'chada yurdingizmi? - Did you walk down this street?

Ana o’sha kuni. - This is the day.


Bunday taom tezda tayyorlanadi. - Such a dish is prepared quickly.

Bu shunday yuz berdi. - It happened like this.

Ana o'shanday ishni qila olamiz. - We can do this kind of work.


Ular shaharga kelishdi. - They came to town.

Bular boshqa-boshqa narsalar. - These are different things.

Bu daraxtlar - teraklar. Shular eng baland. - These trees are poplars. These are the highest.

Odamlarni ko'ryapsizmi? O'shalar. - Do you see people? These are the ones.



Последний раз редактировалось markata Пт июн 24, 2022 15:28, всего редактировалось 1 раз.
markata

 
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пт июн 24, 2022 15:26

Words to memorize:


savol - question

javob - answer


Examples:

Savolingizni bering! - Ask your question! ("ingiz" - imperative-subjunctive affix, "ni" - accusative affix)

U menga javob bersin! - Let him give me the answer! ("sin" - imperative-subjunctive affix)
markata

 
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пт июн 24, 2022 15:26

Words to memorize:


ko‘z - eye

quloq - ear

qo'l - hand

yelka - shoulder

bo’yin - neck

qorin - belly


Examples:


uning go'zal ko'zlari - her beautiful eyes

uzun quloqlar - long ears

Menga qo'lingni ber! (or: "Menga qoʻlingizni bering!") - Give me your hand!

qalin bo'yin - thick neck

katta qorin - big belly
markata

 
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пт июн 24, 2022 15:35

***********************************************

Case formation in Uzbek language


There are six main cases in Uzbek language: nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, locative and ablative.


1.jpg

2.jpg
markata

 
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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пт июн 24, 2022 15:36

Genitive (Possessive) Case. Possessive suffix –NING


There is a special suffix construction in Uzbek which means belonging to. Unlike in English, Uzbek possession can be marked by both Possessor and Possessed. In Uzbek the Possessor is suffixed with -ning and Possessed is suffixed with –im, -ing, -i, -miz, -ingiz, –ngiz.

The formation of possessive relationship is following: the Possessor “Anvar” has a possession “kitob” or “ona”. When suffixed in Uzbek it becomes “Anvarning kitobi” (Anvar’s book) or “Anvarning onasi” (Anvar’s mother).

The plurals are formed by the adding -lar to the root word of either the possessor or the possessed or to both according to context. The possessive forms of personal pronouns are usually dropped when a noun already reflects possession: Mening ismim – Barno vs. Ismim Barno.

Words in the possessive case in a sentence are always a definition and are ahead of the word being defined.
markata

 
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