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Узбекский / Английский

Модератор: Dragan

Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пт июн 16, 2023 08:26

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chap, o'ng, to'g'ri


o'ng – right
o'ng qo’l – right hand
o'ngda OR o'ng qo’l tomonda – on the right
o'ngdan – from the right
o’ngga или o’ng qo’lga – to the right

chap – left
chapda – on the left
chapdan – from the left
chapga – to the left

to'g'ri – straight; right, true, correct; honest
to'g'rida – about
Ishlar to'g'rida gapiraylik – Let's talk about business
to'g'ridan-to'g'ri – directly about something
to'g'riga – straight to

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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пт июн 16, 2023 08:28

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qarab – towards …


This word is derived from qaramoq (to look).

Examples:

Shunday matnlar chapdan o’ngga qarab yoziladi – Such texts are written from left to right

Katta binoga qarab boring – Go towards the big building

U ko’chaning o’rtasida turib, binoga qarab turdi – He stood in the middle of the street and looked at the building

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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пт июн 16, 2023 08:30

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Metals

metall – metal
qora metallar – ferrous metals
rangli metallar – non-ferrous metals
asl metallar – noble metals (asl - root, basis, essence)

temir – iron
tunuka – sheet iron
oq tunuka – tinned iron
ruh tunuka – zinc plated iron
po'lat – steel
zanglamaydigan po'lat – stainless steel (zang - corrosion, zanglamoq – to corrode)

mis – copper
birinj – bronze
jez – brass

qalay – tin
qo'rg'oshin – lead
ruh – zinc; spirits, mood, spirit
simob – mercury

oltin, tilla, zar – gold
kumush – silver

qotishma – alloy
mis bilan rux qotishmasi – copper-zinc alloy

zirh – armour
ruda – ore

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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пт июн 16, 2023 08:32

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Simplified use of compound verbs with "-ol"


Previously, we analyzed that in order to say about the ability or willingness to do something, compound verbs with the relevant verb form "olmoq" are used:
Men buni qila olaman – I can do it
Men buni qila olmayman – I cann’t do it

In spoken Uzbek, the present gerundive suffix -A is dropped and the two components are pronounced as a single verb.
This is not the case for the suffix -Y in verbs ending with a vowel.

Examples:

kelolaman – I can come
kelolmaydi – He can't come
Men borolmayman – I can't go
Iltimosingizni bajarolmaymiz – We cannot fulfill your request
Man nima ham qilolaman? – What else can I do?

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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пт июн 16, 2023 08:34

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Words to memorize:


baliq – fish

ov – hunting; baliq ovi – fishing

qush – bird

suv – water

havo – air

soy – stream

soya – shade

soyabon – umbrella

daraxt – tree

daraxtzor – wooded area, wood

o'rmon – wood

terak – poplar; oq terak – white poplar

o'smoq – to grow

pishmoq – to cook, to bake; to ripen

… iborat – consisting of ...

kasb – craft, profession

hunar – skill, craft, handicraft

ko'tarmoq – to lift, to raise; to carry; to bear

kutmoq – to wait

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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Вт июл 11, 2023 11:44

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Uzbek words similar to words in Germanic languages
Part I



There are many words in the Germanic languages that sound like modified Turkic ones.
I think the reason for this is the origin of the Germanic languages. I hint: the Germans came to Europe from the east.
You can also pay attention to the fact that the Germanic runes are suspiciously similar to the Turkic ones.

men (eng. “I”) ~ me
mening, meniki = my, mine

demoq = to tell
menga degin = tell me

yil = year
bir yil oldin (eng. “a year ago”) ~ one year old

tish = tooth

so'ylamoq = to say

idish = dish

o'rdak = duck

yer = earth, ground (eng.), erde (germ.); ~ yard (eng.), yeomen (eng.)

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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Сб июл 22, 2023 19:08

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Compound words to memorize – 3:


yo'l - road
yo'l-yo'l - striped, stripy

kul - ash
kul-kul - into smithereens

qul - slave
qul-qul - turkey hen

xil - sort
xil-xil - varied, manifold

xol - birthmark, mole
xol-xol – spotty

chil - partridge; forty (from Farsi)
chil-chil - into smithereens

shol - shawl, woollens
shol-shol - to feel very unwell, to feel weakness, pain all over the body

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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Сб июл 22, 2023 19:12

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Confusion – 1


javob – answer
javon – cupboard

janob – master
janub – south

shamol – winter
shimol – north

soy – stream
soya – shadow

mavzu – theme
mavze – district

to'qimoq – to weave, to spin
to'qmoq – wooden hammer, maul
so'qmoq – footpath

echki – goat
ichki – inner

o’tkazmoq – to conduct
o’tqazmoq – to offer a seat, to make sit down

chekka – outermost
chakka – temple

er – husband
yer – earth

o'smoq – to grow up
o'tmoq – to pass through

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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пт сен 01, 2023 12:15

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…yil ilgari, …yil oldin – «… years ago»

Indication of time is used with the affix “-dan” (“yildan”, “oydan”, …), if we do not indicate an exact moment in the past, but a certain reference point, for example: “more (less) … years ago”.

Examples:

hammasi ikki oy ilgari boshlangan – it all started two months ago
yuz yil oldin bizda mashinalar yo'q edi – a hundred years ago we didn't have cars
50 yildan ko'proq vaqt oldin – more than 50 years ago
ko'p yillar oldin – many years ago (there is no specific number - use the affix "lar")
bir necha yillar ilgari bolib otgan voqea – it happened a few years ago (bir necha - a few)

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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пт сен 01, 2023 12:16

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… yildan so’ng, … yildan keyin – «after ... years»

Examples:

U bir necha soatdan keyin qaytib keladi – He will be back in a few hours
O‘n yildan so'ng bu yerda bog‘ bo‘ladi – In ten years there will be a garden here

ortiq, oshiq – exceeding, more than

Men u bilan 20 yildan ortiq tanishman – I have known him (her) for over 20 years

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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пт сен 01, 2023 12:17

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Words to memorize:

doim - always
ba'zan - sometimes
har - each, every, all
har doim - always, all the time
hargiz — not ever

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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Вт сен 19, 2023 17:37

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Compound verbs with «-olmay» и «-olmas»


Earlier we considered verbs with “-ol”. Adding “-olmay” to the verb root means that it is impossible to perform any action:

Men borolmayman – I can't go
Men o'zimdan qochib ketolmayman – I can't run away from myself

But most often the negative form is used – olmas = ol+mas. It means:: «I (probably) can't do it». The affix ”mas" is a negative affix of the Future Presumptive time.

Examples:

Balki Jahongir mirzo Boburga qarshi borolmas? – But will Jahangir dare to go against Babur?

Qucholmasman men seni hargiz. – I could never hug you.

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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пт ноя 03, 2023 14:23

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Pluperfect tense


This tense is used to convey an action in the past that was committed up to some point, also related to the past. It corresponds to the English tenses Past Perfect or Past Simple.
This tense is formed by adding to the verb stem the suffix -gan, followed by the past copula edi, plus the possessive type of personal endings.

kutgan edim – I had waited
kutgan eding – you had waited
kutgan edi – he/she/it had waited
kutgan edik – we had waited
kutgan edingiz – you had waited
kutgan edilar – they had waited

Examples:

U meni ko'rgan edi – He had seen me
Qo’llarini ko’targan edi, bo’yi yetmadi – He raised his hands, but did not reach

Negation is formed either with the -ma affix or with the word emas:

O’sha vaqtga kelib men hali o'qishni tugatmagan edim – By that time I had not yet finished my studies
OR:
… men hali o'qishni tugatgan emas edim

In spoken Uzbek, an abbreviated form is used, where the first vowels e- of emas and edi are dropped, and both copula written together:
… men hali o'qishni tugatganmasdim

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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пт ноя 03, 2023 14:24

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There are cities with such names in Central Asia...


ostona – threshold, entrance, dogtrot

qaraganda – compared to, in relation to
Ikkinchi tomoni uzunligi unga qaraganda 75% ga qisqa – The length of the other side is 75% shorter than this one

qarshi – opposed to, against

osh – hot food, pilaf

qunduz – otter, beaver, any kind of fur

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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пт ноя 03, 2023 14:25

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Abu Ali ibn Sino (Avicenna):

Agar havoda chang va tutun bo’lmaganda edi, kishi ming yil yashagan bo’lar edi – If there were no dust and smoke in the air, a man would live for a thousand years.

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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Пт ноя 03, 2023 14:26

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Tools


asbob – tool, instrument

kesuvchi asbob – cutting tool

bolg'a – hammer

to'qmoq – mallet, wooden hammer

o'roq – sickle

bel o'roq – scythe (bel – lower back)

egov – file

qisqich – forceps, pliers

arra – saw
dastarra – hand saw, hacksaw (dast - hand (obsolete, Farsi))
qo'larra – hand saw, hacksaw

gira – vise

iskanja – press, vise

taxtakach – wooden press consisting of two planks; splint of 2 boards

qolip – form, mold

parma – drill, borer, bitbrace

teshgich – punch stamp

iskana – chisel

moslama – appliance, gadget

dastgoh – machine, lathe, press, loom, etc.

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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Чт дек 14, 2023 17:40

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Using the affix –(i)sh


This affix has the form –ish after a consonant and the form –sh after a vowel.
It is used in two different cases:

1. For the formation of a verbal noun.

qarash – sight, point of view – from the verb qaramoq
o’qish – reading; studying – from the verb o’qimoq
yurish – walking, motion – from the verb yurmoq

Sentences with verbal nouns in most cases are translated as verbs.

A verbal noun is often used:
- in combination with the words kerak, lozim, zarur, shart, darkor, mumkin;
- in combination with the postposition uchun;
- in the dative case.

shuning uchun odamlarga yordam berish kerak – that's why people need to be helped
Ingliz tilini o’rganish uchun kitoblar – books for learning English
U ishdan keyin uyga borish o`rniga ko`chalarni darbadar kezardi – Instead of going home after work, he wandered the streets
chet tillarni bilish hamma uchun foydalidir – knowledge of foreign languages is useful for everyone

In the negative form of the verbal noun, we add the affix -maslik:
u erga bormaslik yaxshiroqdir – it's better not to go there

2. To express a joint action.

This form is very often used in the 3rd person plural instead of di + lar. For example:

Ular kulishdi – They were laughing
Ular yaqin orada yana ko'rishadi – They'll see each other again soon

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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Чт дек 14, 2023 17:41

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Homonyms


uch
- three
- end, tip; spike; peak
- (uchmoq) to fly

qalay
- tin
- how?

tuz
- salt
- (tuzmoq) – to compose; to form; to organize

ot
- horse
- name; (grammar.) noun
tur
- kind, type, sort
- (turmoq) to stand, to get up

ich
- interior
- (ichmoq) to drink

yoz
- summer
- (yozmoq) to write

qozon
- cauldron
- (qozonmoq) to achieve, to earn

kir
- dirt
- (kirmoq) to enter

qo’y
- sheep, ram
- (qo’ymoq) to put, to place; to stop, to refuse; to put aside; as a compound verb is used to indicate the completion of an action: so'rab qo'ydi – he asked

kech
- evening
- (kechmoq) to cross (across the river, sand, snow, ...)

ruh
- zinc
- spirit

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Re: Узбекский / Английский

Сообщение markata » Чт дек 14, 2023 17:42

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esa – as for, however, whereas; then, in that case


[what subject are we talking about] esa [what are we talking about this subject]

Examples:


Ishlaydi, men esa o’qiyman. – He works whereas I study.
Odamlar ketdilar. Biz esa uyda qoldik. – People left. We stayed at home.
Men ertalablari ishlayman. Kechqurunlari esa dam olaman. – I work in the morning. In the evenings, I rest.

It should be noted that the word “esa” is used very often in Uzbek, including in cases where in English the “whereas” or “as for” is dispensed with.

yo’q esa or yo’qsa – otherwise:

Qo'shnilarim qutqarib qolishdi, yo'qsa o'lardim – My neighbors saved me, otherwise I would have died.

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